Friday, 12 May 2017

A quick update

 I had a couple of posts planned,one about Easter, but didn´t get round to it so thought I´d give you a quick update instead.

A couple of days ago my daughter had her last session at the speech therapist,although this was more of our decision rather than the speech therapist telling us that it was no longer necessary. We just felt that our daughter´s pronunciation wasn´t such a problem to start with and her pronunciation of /-s,/which was her main problem,had improved a lot and as she´d been going nearly two months now,it seemed like it was enough.Plus,it´s not cheap!!There are some words that she still finds difficult to pronounce,such as " significa" but I also had problems with "shoulder" and " soldier" when I was a child.I seemed to always mix them up.

We´ve been working on her reading and writing and establishing a homework routine.This is pretty difficult as she´s very strong-willed and resists doing it as she´d prefer to play.I´m trying to find ways to do it in a fun way. There are some really great activities and resources(many are downloadable and free too!) from Growing Book By Book and This Reading Mama. I found some great monthly writing prompts and using one of May´s prompts managed to encourage my daughter to draw a picture and complete the sentence" My favourite flower is...." Even if she copied the words "a sunflower" at least it´s a start.I´m trying to encourage my mum to write to her and then my daughter can reply and practice more and I´m also trying to find my daughter a penfriend of a similar age. I also downloaded some Colour by Sight Words and I´ve persuaded my daughter to colour two of them!! In Spanish, my daughter has just started "Cartilla 3" or" Letrilandia 3" so her reading in both languages is coming on slowly but surely although I still don´t think we´ve succeeded in turning her into a bookworm just yet!!

I still haven´t told you too much about my 19 month old as he´s not really saying very much at the moment. One big difference to his sister is that he doesn´t go to nursery school, whereas my daughter went from turning 1 till she started school, so in theory this means that my son is receiving more exposure to the minority language than his sister did. Unfortunately,however, I feel that I don´t have the same time to spend on him as life is so much busier with two...the curse of being the second child!!

I try to read to my both kids every day and my daughter usually gets an English story and a Spanish story before she goes to bed, my son only usually gets an English story read to him. Sometimes we have to skip nights or my 19month old is very tired so I have to get him to sleep and then it´s too late for me to read to my daughter. Juggling both of them can be difficult and sometimes I read one story to both of them(although my 19mth old doesn´t sit still!).

My 19mth old can say a few words and like his elder sister appears to opt for the easiest word in each language, saying byebye and ball but not adios or pilota,but hola & agua instead of hello and water. Other words he can say are "mama","papa", "yasta", "book", "pooh",´nana for banana  and one of his first words,believe it or not was "ketchup" because his sister is always asking for it!!He also says ta/thank you and si at random and repeated a couple of words like Grandad for awhile,then seemed to stop saying them.Oh and he also said ooooh-la-la....again imitating his sister and the other day it sounded like he said or was trying to say "milk".

Thursday, 6 April 2017

How to maximize the ML while travelling in a Majority Language Country

I´ve been trying to organise a holiday to the UK this summer as I think my children would really benefit from it, both linguistically and culturally. I´d really love to show them my roots so they get to know my country and where I´m from as it´s important to me.Plus I haven´t been back for nearly five years now so it´s about time!!However, my husband doesn´t seem convinced. He doesn´t like travelling with two young kids very much at the best of times so it´s proving quite difficult to persuade him. Also, we have a wedding this summer in the North of Spain and we´ve discussed doing a route around the North of Spain so at the moment I´m putting my UK holiday plans on hold and am going to start concentrating on planning the trip to the Northern Spain and how I can maximize their minority language imput despite the fact that we might not be travelling to a country which speaks the minority language. Here are my ideas:

1. If you can´t travel to visit family and friends, see if they can visit you and go on holiday or a trip together. My parents are coming with us as they´ve never been to this part of Spain before and it will be nice for us to all go together and have fun.Plus two futher bonuses are  that my children will get 90% exposure to the minority language,nearly total immersion, and I´ll have two willing babysitters while we go to the wedding.

2. Take a guided tour in the minority language. Many tourist attractions, museums etc have guided tours in multiple languages,particularly English, French,Spanish and German so try to visit it in your minority language. It´ll be great listening practice for your children and they will learn lots of interesting facts and history.

3. Do something cultural or do an activity in ML if possible: In touristy places there are often many possiblities to do various activities or celebrate cultural events in the minority language.Examples of these are going to see a play or a film in the ML, taking a class in the ML such as a cookery class etc or even celebrating a cultural event. For example, this Easter we are going to Portugal and as there are many British tourists and also many British expats in this area, we are going to an Easter féte with egg painting, food, an egg hunt and other typical British(and German and Dutch!) Easter traditions.

4. Eat at a restaurant owned by expats from your ML country or which serves food from your ML country. It is usually easy to find a variety of restaurants in tourist hotspots,which are often owned by expats.Take Spain for example, along the coast, especially on the Costa Del Sol  you can find many British pubs which serve full English breakfasts, sausage and bacon sandwiches, fish and chips and other British typical dishes and are often run by British expats, so you can eat food from your minority language country while at the same time hearing and speaking the minority language. You may even get friendly with other bilingual or British families.However, it depends on where you are travelling as some places might not have restaurants from your ML country. Although I know that it´s typical to try the food from the region or place you are visiting, I think it is alright to make an exception and to eat in a ML country´s restaurant particularly if you are travelling in the majority language country as you can eat food from the majority language country at any time.

5. Visit ML shops such as supermarkets and bookshops etc. Again you will be exposed to ML print enhancing captive reading in the minority language and will hear and speak in the minority language and again may meet and make friends with monolingual families.

At the moment, these are all the ideas I can think of to promote the minority language and to be as immersed as possible in the minority language and culture as possible while travelling in the majority country or other countries to that of the majority or minority language countries. I´d love to hear if you have any other ideas about how to maximize minority language while travelling in the majority language or other countries which aren´t minority language countries.I have to say that we are extremely lucky to have English as our minority language as it´s spoken widely around the world and there are many opportunities to find things in English.

Sunday, 12 March 2017

Reading....getting there poco a poco!

Another post about our progress and struggle with reading in both languages, as it´s a subject that´s close to my heart! I also realised that in my last post about reading I don´t think I spoke too much about the Spanish side of things!! Reading is much a uphill struggle both in the majority and minority language, with my daughter not appearing to be at all motivated about learning to read nor enjoying reading. At school they have started reading the "cartilla" using a set of "books" called Letrilandia (Edelvives). Although Letrilandia seems to be used in many schools to teach children to read,I´m not a big fan of it. It takes one letter or sound e.g m and then combines them with vowel sounds eg mu, ma,mi,mo,mu and then it has 3 words and pictures with some of these sounds and then sentences using these sounds e.g. La momia. La paloma. I think it is rather a tedious and boring way to learn how to read...no wonder some kids might not be motivated..The Oxford Reading Tree is much better in comparison. My sister-in-law also lent us the collection of El Zoo de las Letras, in which each book a story is written which contains lots of words containing the letter and at the end of the book there are activities that the children can do to further help their comprehension of the text and reading skills. This is a bit more similar to the Oxford Reading Tree and I think is more fun and motivating. I also discovered these two websites with interactive online games based on helping children to learn to read: http://paraaprenderaleer.blogspot.(not sure if this website works though) and educajuegosparaleer.blogspot.com although unfortunately we haven´t got round to trying out these websites and games particularly as I tend to concentrate more on my daughter´s reading & writing in English and it is my husband who tends to do Spanish reading with her.

I´m continuing to do the things I mentioned in my previous post The 2 R´s although I´ve learnt not to push it so much and have relaxed my efforts a little because she is struggling with reading in the majority language too and is falling behind the rest of the class and secondly, because I want her to enjoy reading not hate it so don´t want it to feel too much like an obligation.

I got some really good ideas off the Bilingual Monkeys blog, which talked about captive reading, that I´d never heard of. The basic idea is to expose your child to as much written print in the minority language as possible. I bought two of these magic boards as shown in the photo(I can´t remember the actual name of these now!) and started leaving little messages such as "I can see you","Good morning" etc in both bathrooms. The drawbacks are that these "magic boards" are very cheap and not very good and half the message would disappear almost instantly. Another drawback is that even some of these short messages are difficult for my daughter to read so I´m now contemplating just writing one word.However, I need to find something better to write my messages on...any suggestions??It was pretty effective as I think my daughter enjoys the novelty of finding a little message just for her especially if it is funny or silly and once or twice it even prompted her to reply!!As she was struggling with reading in Spanish too I also started writing the Spanish translation...however, it´s not really what I wanted to do and sometimes I make mistakes in the majority language so am unsure as to continue doing this.

I´m also trying to establish a good homework routine especially as next year she will have homework every night so this will stand her in good stead,particularly as I´m not sure how much time she will have to dedicate to extra English homework.My daughter doesn´t really like to do "quiet" activities though and would much rather play than be doing extra work which seems too much like school. I´m trying to find fun ways to incorporate reading and writing but it can also be difficult for example to play games with flashcards etc as my 17 month old starts picking up the cards and messing them up. However, I´ve got the Jolly Phonics books out again and a Peppa Pig activity book and we are slowly working through them and she gets a sticker or a stamp after she´s completed the homework.She also writes her name and I write the date on it so we have a record. We are also trying to play board or card games to make learning to read and write more fun. After a slight disaster trying to get hold of Junior Scrabble, I had a look on Amazon and discovered  the board game Pop for Sight Words which had really good reviews so I ordered it but unfortunately I´ve only managed to convince my daughter to play it once and I can tell that it hasn´t been such a successful buy!!

As she is also struggling with reading in Spanish, from time to time I´ve bought majority language magazines, such as one about ponies and another about princesses. The first one she was quite enthusiastic about and did a lot of the puzzles and activities but I think she barely looked at the second one. Apart from the one magazine, CBeebies, I haven´t got around to buying any other minority language magazines although this is definitely on my to-do list and I eventually want to take out a subscription.As mentioned in my previous post, I registered on the Oxford Owl website, which means that I now have access to 250 free ebooks so we have also been using this excellent and -best of all-free resource. You can read the book online and also listen to the audio and complete the activities and  as it´s a different format, this has been quite motivating for my daughter and she read two books one after the other the very first time we used this resource!

Another reccomendation  from Bilingual Monkeys to encourage reading was to try reading comics so I bought one of the comics reccomended, Gabby & Gator by James Burks, and I read it aloud to my daughter during our nightly bedtime story. She really enjoyed it and asked me to read it each night until I´d finished it and I think ,once her reading ability has improved a little, that she should be able to read it by herself so I ´m going to buy more comics by this author and try other comics. The final idea that is a fun game involves using white sticky labels and writing names of the things in the room and then,with my help we would read the labels and my daughter would stick it on the item so this adds to the use of captive reading.So little by little we are making gradual progress.


Thursday, 23 February 2017

What to expect if you visit a speech therapist

As my daughter´s languages developed so did her pronunciation although there were certain sounds she stumbled over,such as the -r in both majority and minority languages. When she was younger, she´d often pronounce the /-r /as a /-l/ sound therefore "Granny" became "Glanny" etc and even when she had learnt to pronounce the /-r/ sound in English,she still had the problem of rolling her r´s in Spanish.This is however a common problem and even Spanish monolingual kids have problems mastering this sound so we weren´t too worried about it although her previous teacher had mentioned that she might need to see a speech therapist. Fast track to this year, when by now at age 5-6 Spanish monolingual children should be able to pronounce all the sounds including the tricky rolling -r  and although my daughter can actually roll her r´s, her current teacher has picked her up on her pronounciation of certain phonemes or sounds,particularly her /-s/´s and advised us to send her to a speech therapist to straighten out her pronunciation. This is because they will start to do dictations next year when they start primary and might affect how she spells words. We were surprised as we hadn´t noticed that she didn´t pronounce some sounds correctly although I had noticed that occasionally she would say things like "gromitar" instead of "vomitar" but I thought this was down to mishearing the word rather than mispronunciation and I usually leave Spanish correction to my husband. I´d go so far as to say her pronunciation in English is near perfect!!

Now we take her twice a week for 1/2 hour sessions before her ballet class to the speech therapist, who works in the school. This can be quite expensive but is also available through the public health care system.This however makes our Mondays and Wednesdays very hectic and it´s difficult to squeeze in English reading or homework.During the first session. I think the speech therapist just asked lots of questions and observed my daughter to find out which sounds she was having trouble with and in the follow-up sessions they have been practising the -s sounds. Usually the parents wait outside while the children are having their session so I don´t really know what they do but I know that they´ve taught her how to position her tongue and lips/mouth when pronouncing the /s/.She also brings home "worksheets" with pictures of things beginning with -s that she has to practice saying and a Ludo type game with lots of pictures of things beginning with -s. She´s only had 4 sessions and they are saying that she can pronoun the sound and only has to practice it now so hopefully she shouldn´t have to go much longer. I´m not worried about it and nor do I think that it has anything to do with her being bilingual as many of her monolingual Spanish classmates are also going to the speech therapist. I´m inclined to think it´s more to do with her having a dummy when she was little and when she first started speaking, she was talking with the dummy in her mouth...however being bilingual could also play a small part in it. Have you had to visit a speech therapist with your bilingual child? What have your experiences been?




Friday, 17 February 2017

Valentine´s Day fun

I have so many future posts in my head waiting to be written but unfortunately just can´t seem to find time to do them all so I´ll start with one of the most recent events, Valentine´s Day. Even though Valentine´s Day is done and dusted for this year, thought I´d still post about the activities we did this year so you can maybe refer to them or do them the following year.
                                                 
 Valentine´s Day is not celebrated as much in Spain as in the UK and the US , where it is widely celebrated so as I like to teach my children British culture as well as the language, I like to do activities so that they learn about this special day. Plus it´s a great way to learn lots of vocabulary relating to love and emotions. The only book we have in English that fits the topic of love and Valentine´s Day is Guess How Much I Love You? by Sam MacBratney,and is ideal to read on Valetine´s Day. I also went to the library a few days before Valentine´s Day and got some other books in the majority language about love, Pedro está enamorado by Sara Pennypacker & Petra Mathers &  Besos Para Cada Momento by Antoine Guillope. As they are in Spanish and my husband is the one who reads Spanish books to our children,I can´t really tell you much about them although I think my husband didn´t like them too much and thought that the topic of Pedro está enamorada was too old for my daughter although I think I disagree but would have to read the book to form a true opinion.                                            .

In the UK they sell some sweets all year round called Love Hearts  (pictured top left and top right hand corner)which have little hearts and a little message on them, which says things like "Blue Eyes", "I Love You" etc on them so I asked my mum to bring some when she came. You can probably order them online at shops like British Corner Shop and the British Foodstore Online, which sell and deliver internationally.I also downloaded the free Valentine´s Day activities from Bilingual Avenue and decided to do a scavenger hunt type thing by hiding the sweets around the house and then when we found the sweets, we would read the messages on the sweets before eating them(working on reading skills in a fun way!)My daughter loved this activity especially as it involved sweets....she´s got a very sweet tooth just like he mum!

We then went all arts and craftsy and made some homemade Valentine´s cards with pink and red card I had bought....I also brought out the fingerpaint,thinking it´d be something fun and easy that my 17 month old could join in with-what a mistake!! Paint nearly ended up everywhere...it was pretty messy! I let my daughter get creative with her card and for my card(or joint effort!) I made hearts using my thumb prints and then tried to get my daughter and son´s handprints. I had wanted my daughter to write her card in English but as it was for her Daddy,who she always talks to in Spanish, I guess it was quite normal for her to choose to write it in Spanish(the majority language)After we´d left the cards to dry out and I´d cleaned up the kids and the mess, I wanted to do the Love Coupons but by this point my daughter had become tired and no amount of persuading her could get her to join in or do any other activities unfortunately. So, on the one hand we had a lot of fun doing these activities, however on the other hand I was  a bit disappointed that maybe it hadn´t generated as much vocabulary etc about Valentine´s Day but in the end the main thing is that they (or we!) enjoyed doing them.




Saturday, 11 February 2017

Sourcing Minority Language Resources & English Bookshops in Spain

When you´re bringing up bilingual children, you can never have enough minority language resources, especially books but sourcing them can be expensive and difficult. Thanks to Amazon and Ebay  which make it easier and cheaper and are my usual go-to places when sourcing minority language resources. However, they do have the drawbacks of having the extra cost of postage and the problem of not being able to see the book (or other language resource) before buying it.

Although you can find some English language books in bookshops where I live,there is only a limited selection and they usually cost more so I tend to buy most books from Amazon and sometimes Ebay.However, I suppose at most bookshops you could order minority language books. In big cities such as Madrid, Valencia, Barcelona and in touristy areas you can find English bookshops. Here are a couple of English bookshops I´ve come across although I´ve only visited one of them!! First of all there was Petra´s International Bookshop in Madrid,a small,friendly bookshop, which I actually visited quite a long time ago and  which sold secondhand books in English and Spanish and many other languages and it was also possible to exchange books.Apparently,according to an Internet Google search Petra´s International Bookshop is no longer exists but has been reopened/been replaced by Desperate Literature.

I have come across two English bookshops in Valencia through Facebook and although I´ve never visited them, they appear to be two great ways to source minority language resources. The first is English Wooks a specialist English bookshop which sells English books,textbooks and other English language materials for educational purposes for parents and teachers. The second bookshop is an online bookshop based in Valencia called The English Box which sells books and stories for children and teenagers from 1-18yrs old in English. I´d love to visit both of these bookshops when and if I ever go to Valencia!!I´m sure there are others throughout Spain so if you know of any good international or English bookshops in Spain,please let me know!!

Other ways to source minority language resources is to visit your local library as they are sure to have some books in English and other minority languages,although again where I live the choice is limited and are mainly "readers" or graded level reading books for majority language speakers learning another language.

You could also do a book swap or exchange with fellow native speakers and their children to widen the range of minority language resources and books available. I have suggested this to my friends but so far we haven´t got round to doing it!

One of the best ways to access minority language resources is to register at Oxford Owl and what´s more it´s completely free and you can download and access 250 ebooks for free at different levels and age groups, plus they give you many tips about teaching your child to read and Maths,book reccommendations ,storytelling videos,and fun ideas etc to help your child learn.There is even a blog and I have found this website very useful in the struggle with teaching my daughter to read.

Wednesday, 1 February 2017

Reflections on the 2017 Family Language Challenge

After participating in the 2017 Family Language Challenge set by Bilingual Avenue I thought I´d finally get round to posting my reflections and observations about it! I really enjoyed taking part in the challenge as it helped me think about my vision and ideas as to where we are heading and what my objectives(or our obejectives as a family!) are in our bilingual journey.I have to say I don´t really think about it and plan how to achieve our goals....in fact I don´t even really set goals for our language learning but rather let things run their natural course.

A Facebook group was set up for those participating in the challenge and it was good to come into contact with other like-minded parents of bilingual and multilingual children and find out their goals and aspirations for their bilingual/multilingual children, which also helped bounce ideas off of one another. There were many language combinations but particularly those of Spanish & English- there were even two from Madrid!! 

We were sent a task every day to complete for the five day challenge....the hardest part for me was trying to keep up with the tasks and even now I still have to complete Day 5´s task(yes, I´m a bit of a slacker!!)Day 1´s task was involved in envisioning our goals for our children by a certain age, Day 2 was a look back on the previous year´s achievements and failures, Day 3 was looking ahead to the future and how we are going to achieve our goals,Day 4 was contemplating how to create exposure and need to the languages and Day 5 is putting the plan into action. After each task you could share your visions or goals on the Facebook group if you wanted to. The challenge also included a Bilingual Planner so you can plan and write down your observations....there are also questions and pointers to help you try and achieve your goals month by month.I still need to fill out January´s and start on February´s! All in all, a very useful and helpful guide that I´m sure is going to help us on our bilingual journey.

Friday, 20 January 2017

2017 Family Language Challenge

Just a quick one to tell you that I´ve just signed up for Bilingual Avenue´s 2017 Family Language Challenge (if you click on the link you can join up for free!) You can find out more about this challenge on Bilingual Avenue´s post, the challenge is designed to help you perfectly plan what you want to achieve this year with your children and above all with their bilingualism.I´m so excited and looking forward to participating and creating lots more opportunities for improving my children´s bilingual abilities and language learning!! I´ll also be hoping to blog about the challenge and how it has helped us.

Tuesday, 17 January 2017

How Bilingual Are Bilingual Schools in Spain?

I live in a fairly small city in Castilla-La Mancha and where I live the majority of "bilingual" schools are concertados, a concertado school is neither completely a state school,nor a completely private school but  something in between, almost like a private school which receives funding from the government,and I think there are only two state schools which have a bilingual programme, a primary school and a secondary school.I was adamant that I was going to send my children to a bilingual school so that they had even more imput in their minority language and also to compensate for the fact that I work in the afternoons/evenings as a TEFL teacher so their exposure to the minority language would be more limited once they started school due to my job and when completing the form, I included almost all the schools which had a bilingual programme.In the end we were lucky enough to get into the school which was our first choice and on the whole we are very happy with it but unfortunately my recurring question is: just how bilingual are bilingual schools in Spain?

Many schools in Spain,especially the concertados, which tend to be more religious schools, often follow the BEDA, which stands for Bilingual Education and Development & Assessment, programme.In my daughter´s school this means that the amount of English is increased to 180 minutes per week with 3 30minute sessions of a Non Linguistic Discipline (Disciplina no Linguestica) and 2 weekly 45 minute sessions of English.This is implemented right from when they first start school at 3,which I think is great.The teachers, as far as I know are Spanish but I think the lessons are given completely in English but they have little or no exposure to any native English speaking teachers.However,no subjects are taught completely in English until they reach Primaría(age 6 going on 7), where they have 2 weekly sessions of music and 1 weekly session of Arts & Crafts in English. Again as far as I know there is no exposure to a native English speaking teacher(at least in my daughter´s school),which I´m a little disappointed about as I was previously under the impression that there was a bilingual native assistant who visited all the classes at least once a week. I´ll be able to tell you more about this next year when my daughter starts Primaría!!

At the moment the bilingual programme uses the Amco(click on the link for more information)methodology which has evolved in Mexico and therefore teaches American English. I have no problems with this methodology or the fact that it is teaching them American English as I think it is important for them to learn all types of English although it doesn´t seem to be in keeping with the fact that they are a Cambridge examining centre and offer the Cambridge exams,which are largely geared towards British English although you can use American English in the Cambridge exams too if you use it consistently.The books used by this method is a workbook & students book called Gear Up Levels 1-3 as shown in the photo and I think this is supported with lots of songs and games.                                                                                          
      One of my main worries when it comes to my children´s bilingualism is the literacy side of things so I was quite relieved when I flicked through last term´s English workbook and found that they have started writing words above the pictures.Here is an example in which my daughter had to draw things that she can see in school and above the drawings,she´s written the words :door,window and clock.However,I know that in other bilingual schools they do extra reading in English although maybe not when the children are still in Infantíl or the Infants and have exposure to native teachers at least once a week from 3 yrs and up.
Extracurricular English classes are also offered with the aim of obtaining the Cambridge exams from Starters up to First Certificate and in these classes students are offered exposure to native English speaking teachers but these classes are not free and parents have to pay for their children to take part in these extracurricular classes.

Nowadays the Government has toughened up and English teachers or teachers who are participating in bilingual programmes have to have an English level of at least B1/B2 but I think that they should have a C1 or even C2 if they are teaching a bilingual programme and teach English classes 100% in English in order for these bilingual programmes to work properly because there are many doubts about how effective and beneficial these bilingual programmes really are. Many students who attend "bilingual" schools often end up going to extracurricular classes in academies to further improve their English. I also believe that to be fully bilingual 50% of the classes should be given in English and 50% of the classes should be given in Spanish,starting from when they first start school at the age of 3.

These are just my experiences and opinions of bilingual schools in Spain and I can´t really compare it to all bilingual schools in Spain.I am neither completely satisfied with the bilingual education nor am I completely dissatisfied but rather sit somewhere in the middle.I often think that my daughter must find it boring in English class as she knows a lot of the vocabulary that they are learning...for example the colours, the numbers 1-10, clothes etc but she says she isn´t bored. I´ll just have to see how her bilingual education pans out and I´ll be updating you on the changes. Next year should be exciting with the introduction of classes in English! I´d love to hear about your experiences and opinions of bilingual schools and education in Spain or other countries.




                      

Wednesday, 4 January 2017

The 2 R´s-teaching reading & writing in the minority language

As a self-confessed bookworm myself,I have always been keen to install a love of reading in my children and looked forward to teaching my daughter to read in the minority language, English. One of my aims in our bilingual journey is that my children end up as near to "balanced bilingualism" as possible,which means also teaching them to read and write in their minority language. However, this has been more of a struggle than I first anticipated!

In the Spanish education system most children don´t start learning to read until they reach 5 years old whereas my daughter´s peers back in the UK start learning to read when they start school at 4 yrs old. In an attempt to try and start teaching my daughter on a par with the UK I bought the Jolly Phonics workbooks and also the Oxford Reading Tree(Level 1&2), which are used in the majority of primary schools in the UK but with a newborn baby to look after and a tired and not so enthusiastic daughter, didn´t get very far!

Now she has started learning to read & write in Spanish so I´ve renewed my efforts but still finding it a bit of an uphill struggle, finding the time to sit down and practice reading and writing and also motivating her. I   don´t know whether it´s because she has to process both languages so it is taking her longer to grasp reading  and that this is normal in bilingual children or whether it´s because she doesn´t appear to be very interested in learning to read, despite all my hard efforts.We have started again with the Oxford Reading Tree and are working our way through Level 1 and have almost started Level Two plus I have copied the words from the stories in Level 1 onto card to make flashcards,which we try to go through every other day.My husband is working with her on her Spanish reading & writing and she is working through her first"cartilla". I find the Spanish way of learning to read more boring and not as motivating as the Oxford Reading Tree.

I have both letter magnets and the National Literacy Strategy Magnetic Words for Reception on the fridge and  I form words such as the days of the week, the months or other words and also sentences on the fridge so my daughter can read them or make her own words or sentences or even just play with them. I have also looked at the website :www.oxfordowl.co.uk, which has many free resources including games and tips about how to encourage literacy and if you subscribe to it, you can access many ebooks. I´ve found a couple of fantastic pages on Facebook of blogs/websites about encouraging reading including Growing Book By Book and Reading Is Fundamental, both of which give good advice and have free resources.The Reading is Fundamental site has activity calenders for each month and for different ages, which you can print out in Spanish or English and do the activities each day...my only problem is that I don´t have access to some of the books that are reccommended but we try to do what activities we can.

For now we are not doing much writing either as anything that looks like a worksheet or schoolwork is a distinct no-no...so I´m trying to come up with fun ways for us to practice both reading & writing. I´m hoping the Junior Scrabble boardgame will help with writing/spelling and also with reading. So all in all it´s a slow process but we are getting there gradually. I have more ideas of how to help her with her 2 R´s but my main big hurdle is finding out how to motivate her.I also printed out a reading chart and after each book she finishes, she gets a sticker and when the chart is full she can get a treat,which seems to help a little with motivation.  At least she enjoys being read to and I´m going to try to do it every night as some nights we just don´t get round to it for one reason or another. Another thing I want to try is audiobooks as at least they will help her vocabulary and listening skills...while hopefully encouraging her to learn to read too(I hope!)She also watches SuperWhy occasionally, an American cartoon which focuses on literacy and reading skills,shown on Canal Panda in Spain, which she enjoys and I want to buy the set of Alphablocks, which has very good reviews on Amazon and is all about phonics. I´d love to hear your ideas and thoughts or experiences about teaching the two R´s in the minority language.